Knowledge work can be differentiated from other forms of work by its emphasis on “non-routine” problem solving that requires a combination of convergent and divergent thinking. But despite the amount of research and literature on knowledge work, there is no succinct definition of the term. Knowledge workers spend 38% of their time searching for information. They are also often displaced from their bosses, working in various departments and time zones or from remote sites such as home offices and airport lounges. As businesses increase their dependence on information technology, the number of fields in which knowledge workers must operate has expanded dramatically.
Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies. Some of these agencies exist solely for addressing certain types of emergencies whilst others deal with ad hoc emergencies as part of their normal responsibilities. Many of these agencies engage in community awareness and prevention programs to help the public avoid, detect, and report emergencies effectively. The availability of emergency services depends very heavily on location, and may in some cases also rely on the recipient giving payment or holding suitable insurance or other surety for receiving the service.
As demand for bandwidth in networks continues to grow, the competition between different applications and protocols for these resources will continue to grow as well. Certain applications, such as Voice over IP (VoIP) and Video Conferencing, require guaranteed minima of resources so that users will not experience unacceptable delays or dropouts during their communications. The Internet Protocol in its currently used version 4 does not provide a formal mechanism for applications to reserve these resources on the network. With version 6 of IP—as well as in a number of other network protocols—the notion of Quality of Service has been formally introduced, meaning that a mechanism to solve this problem has been provided.